Introducing the Wings of POWER II: P40
Nothing else looks, sounds, or feels like a Wings of POWER aircraft
Exclusively developed for
Microsoft Flight Simulator X
At the bottom of the page,
A2A Simulations 3D LIGHTING SYSTEM
The Wings of POWER P40 Virtual Cockpit
Wings of POWER II
When we decided to develop Wings of Power, the agreed upon goal was to create the most complete flying experience. This means building aircraft that not only look beautiful, but also fly and function authentically.
Some flyers live for complex gauges and realistic cockpit environments, while others simply admire watching their new aircraft fly through their favorite places around the world. It is our belief that while soaring through the skies, even the casual flyer will appreciate that there is a world of detail and history in every dial and switch. It is the same feeling you get when you sit in the cockpit of a real airplane. The difference is, in a simulated world, you can have it all.
Wings of Power sets new standards in many areas, probably the most notable are the 3D cockpit environments. While they are beautiful to look at, they represent the top layer of an amazing world that lies beneath. The more you fly these aircraft, the more you discover.
Like the entire Wings of Power series, the flight model was very carefully researched. We used some rare, authentic flight test reports and the actual pilot's training manual and technical orders to ensure our procedures and performance matched the real thing as closely as possible.
We are passionate about our work and are proud to be the makers of Wings of Power. We think you will have many hours of enjoyment with it.
-The Wings of POWER Team
Extensive research goes into making an aircraft, and nothing quite replaces first-hand experience. This includes visiting the aircraft(s), speaking with pilots and mechanics, and flight-testing. We must first capture and verify how it looks, sounds, and performs to create a faithful Wings of Power aircraft.
For the P40, we made two trips to the good people at the Cavanaugh Flight Museum in Dallas Texas (http://www.cavanaughflightmuseum.com/) , and took their P40 up for various test flights to verify performance and capture live sound. Probably the best part of this research was taking a lot of time to just be around the aircraft and the people who take such good care of it.
Flyable P40 at Cavanaugh Flight Museum in Dallas Texas
Mike piloted the P40 and explained the many fine details only an experienced pilot would know
Here is a full movie of Mike giving the P40 a walk-around:
Cockpit preparing for flight
In the pit test flying the P40
If it moved, we verified exactly how it functioned and performed
We studied the pilot’s manuals to insure proper and realistic function and behavior
Visual Effects and Sound
A host of new visual effects were created to immerse the pilot further into an authentic experience. This includes realistic startup effects and natural engine smoke (hit the “I” key to enable engine smoke). Once started, experiment with the throttle in any aircraft and notice the subtle differences of the engine sounds inside and out. When your aircraft is taxiing on a dirt strip, you will see more dust being kicked up by the wheels.
We recorded the genuine Allison engine sound, both inside and out at all power levels, and at all angles with the finest sound recording equipment available. The sounds are 100% genuine Allison P40 and have been reproduced for Microsoft FSX unlike ever before.
A2A Simulations on site recording the Allison engine
A new explosion has also been added should you plunge your aircraft into the ground, among other visuals.
The P-40 was one of the most important fighters of World War II. Not because of it’s raw performance, but because it was widely available and served it’s role well and it remained a favorite aircraft to the pilots that knew it best.
The P40 was a very cost-effective aircraft to produce, and over a 5-year period, almost 14,000 P-40 aircraft were produced. The P-40 flew in Africa, Asia, and Europe and is probably most remembered for being used by the Flying Tigers AVG (American Volunteer Group), with its famous shark-toothed paint scheme.
The P40 roots are from the Curtiss Hawk 75. With the impending war, Curtiss built on the Hawk’s proven airframe and equipped it with the Allison V-1710 engine.
Flying the Wings of POWER P40
The P-40 for all of its shortcomings was a very stable gun platform. It’s greatest strength was its heaviness and ability to out-dive all of it’s German and Japanese counterparts. In a dive you can hold the pipper on a target and maintain that view through 460 mph firing as you go, and even in this heavy airframe have the ability to pull out the dive with sufficient airspace underneath you to climb quickly into another firing position. Of course because it is heavy and fast in a dive you can reach the speed of compressibility and be unable to pull out of a dive even in the heavier air. While compressibility is hard to model in a flight simulator, we incorporated the overstress factor when that point is reached. The American Volunteer Group used this diving from high altitude tactic over and over again to gain air superiority over their enemies and the A2A aircraft exhibits that same stability in a power dive.
At altitude below 14,000 feet, the aircraft is fairly agile and able to maneuver sufficiently to dogfight pretty much anything that comes at it. I was told by David Lee “Tex” Hill at a book signing that contrary to popular opinion and myth, that a well maintained P-40 could, in fact, turn with most aircraft in a dogfight at lower altitudes, where most combat actually occurs anyway. There were of course some exceptions with much lighter aircraft. The British historians of that era have stated that in the hands of competent pilots the P-40 proved effective against even the best of the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica. Considered markedly superior to the older Hurricane which it replaced as the primary fighter of the Desert Air Force, the P-40 Tomahawk was deadly against Axis bombers in the North African theater, as well as the Bf 110 and early Italian fighter types, such as the Fiat G.50 and the Macchi C.200, though the Bf 109 proved a greater challenge, particularly the later F and G variants. The P-40 was superior to the Bf 109 in maneuverability and structural strength, and was roughly equal to it in firepower, but was inferior in speed and rate of climb.
The P-40 was an aircraft with a heavy nose, due in part to the weight of the 1100 horsepower V12 1710-C15 Allison engine that propelled it. This becomes quite obvious when you apply flaps at landing. The nose immediately begins to drop and is modeled very well. The P-40 Tomahawk could not climb with most of the opposing aircraft as its rate of climb was about 2100-2800 ft/min(11m/s) and could only reach speeds of 340mph or 300knots at 14, 000 ft depending on the model of aircraft.
Length: 31.71 ft
Wing Span: 37.29 ft
Basic Weight: 6190 lbs
Maximum Power: 1040 Hp
Maximum speed: 360 mph @ 16000 ft
Climb rate: 2800 ft/min
Powerplant: Allison V-1710
P40B - total 159 U.S. Gallons
fuselage - 57.28
wing - 61.25
res - 40.35
P40B AVG - total 130 Imp. Gallons
fuselage - 47
wing - 50
res - 33
Tomahawks IIB - total 155.8 Imp. Gallons
fuselage - 40
wing - 45
res - 27.5
droptank - 43.3
Curtiss P40B serial number 41-13297. This aircraft was based at Oahu, Hawaii during the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. It survived the attack but was lost on a routine patrol in January 1942. It was recovered in 1989 with the intention of being returned to flying condition. It has now been beautifully restored and is flying in its original wartime markings. The Fighter Collection, Duxford, now owns the aircraft.
Hawk 81-a2 Number '77' flown by 3rd Squadron Flight Leader R.T. Smith, Kunming, China, January 1942. Robert Tharp (R.T.) Smith, born in York, Nebraska on 23 February 1918, joined the Army Air Corps as an aviation cadet in 1939. Graduating with Class 40-C at Randolph on 21 June 1940, he remained there as a flight instructor until July 1941 when he was allowed to resign his commission to join the American Volunteer Group, then forming in Burma. Flying as part of the AVG’s Third Pursuit Squadron, Smith was credited with one–and-one-half Sally bombers destroyed, another probably destroyed and four damaged in the first air raid on Rangoon, Burma on 23 December. Two days later, on Christmas Day, he downed two more bombers and an Oscar in a repeat raid on the Burmese capital. Moving to Loiwing, China he became an ace on 8 April 1942 with the destruction of two Oscars over the AVG base. He downed another Oscar two days later and completed his scoring with the AVG on 28 April with a final Oscar south of Hsipaw.
Tomahawk MkIIB AK498 250 Squadron, flown by Flt LT Clive Caldwell, Libya November 1941. Clive Caldwell was born in Lewisham, Sydney. He learned to fly in 1938 with the Aero Club of New South Wales. When the Second World War broke out, he joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Caldwell served with 250 Squadron, Royal Air Force in the Middle East campaign and North African campaign, flying Tomahawks and Kittyhawks. He became known for developing a method of practicing aerial gunnery deflection by shooting at the shadow of his own aircraft on the desert surface. Caldwell claimed 22 victories while in North Africa flying P-40s, including ten Bf 109s and two Macchi C.202s.
Tomahawk MkIIB "White 58" 20th GIAP, flown by Lieutenant Alexei Khlobystov. Alexei Khlobystov was born on 23 February 1918 in Vtoroe Zakharovo in the Ryazan region and learned to fly at the Ustomi aeroclub during 1938. In 1939 he joined the army and attended Kacha Military Air Collage where he won his wings in 1941. Alexei Khlobystov's had a flare for taran attacks, three of his eight victories were by this method. On 13 December 1943, by which time he was leading an eskardrilya in the 20 GIAP, he was killed in action. At the time of his death Khlobystov had claimed 8 destroyed and 24 shared victories in 335 sorties.
Enjoying the P40
Flying the P40 in Microsoft FSX is an extremely enjoyable experience. The aircraft has such beautiful lines, a genuine Allison sound, and feels just right to fly. Perhaps much of this enjoyment comes from the meaningful place the P40 holds in the hearts of so many.
Here are some little details you may appreciate while flying the P40:
The Pilot looks where he flies
At 8,000 feet, he puts on his Oxygen mask
Don’t forget to use your cowl flaps (default assignment- CTRL-SHIFT-C / CTRL-SHIFT-V).
The drop tank is different from other allied drop tanks. The release lever is located below the pilot's left elbow.
Of course, enjoy the night flying from the cockpit
and from the outside, with the built-in A2A 3D Lights
Test Piloting the P-40
Ignition should be off, flaps to neutral(left side cockpit next to seat), set your parking brake(lower left center of panel)
Do your visual inspection outside of your aircraft check ailerons, elevator, and rudder
Set propellor to manual low pitch. (left side cockpit below mixture)
Set your fuel tank to RESERVE (left side of cockpit-lower panel)
Turn on switches( left lower side of cockpit-battery switch on, generator on, prop safety switch on, propeller control switch to auto), (ride side of cockpit avionics on, set cowl flaps to SHUT). Check Ammeter at left side cockpit lower-should read 45 amps.
If cold start, make sure carb heat is set to COLD (upper right side cockpit)
Move your magneto switch to BOTH
Depress Primer two times,
Set throttle one inch
Set Mixture to Full Rich
Engage starter button
Rev to 800 to 1000 rpms
Move Mixture to Auto Rich
Check oil temp (s/b 40 to 60 degrees C)
Check Oil pressure 60-80 lbs
Radiator temp for run up to 80 degrees C
Set prop switch(lower left cockpit) to Manual
Check magneto function left and right at 2200 rpm and watch tachometer for differences, no more than 26 inches of Mercury showing on your Manifold Pressure gauge
Set magneto to BOTH and reset prop switch back to Automatic
(Exact duplication of flight)
Open your cockpit to taxi and turn on your lights and taxi into position. As the P-40 has no wild inclination to veer left still a little right rudder should be applied.
Make sure your attitude gyro is uncaged (the knob is on the panel high right next attitude indicator gauge). Check your Prestone warning by toggling the warning test switch on the lower left side of your cockpit panel.
Set your mixture to Auto Rich
Set pitot(left side cockpit on lights panel) and check your engine oil pressure, oil temp, coolant temp, and vacuum. If engine is running too warm from a long idle open up your cowl flaps (right side of cockpit) to 3/4
Ease your throttle to no more than 40 inches of Mercury as shown on the Manifold Pressure Gauge, you may have to apply a little brake until the tail gets sufficient airflow to the rudder.
Set flaps 10 degrees
Set your elevator trim tabs for take-off and rotate at 110 mph
Raise you landing gear and ease off the flaps as you get a positive climb and wheels are securely in the wheel well.
As you climb, set your throttle back to 35 inches of mercury showing on your Manifold Pressure Gauge. Your best climb rate to 16000 is at 150-160 mph at 35 inches MP or 2600 rpm
Ease your mixture to between auto rich and auto lean at 5000 ft AGL. Set your trim to approx 5.8 degrees or 43 to 45 percent. This should allow you to climb at 2100 ft/min at 140 mph. At 10000 feet set your mixture to 35 percent for best climb and maintaining 2600 rpm and 35 inches of MP and turn on your oxygen lower right panel
Cruising at 14000-16000
For high speed cruise rpm set to 2600, prop, manifold pressure at 35 in.
For normal cruising the prop revolutions should be set to 2280 rpms with manifold pressure at 27.9, mixture set to auto rich,
Economy set prop to 2190 rpm, manifold at 25.2 inches, switch the propeller control from Auto to manual and ease off the mixture until you see a drop of 40-50 rpms, then switch propeller control back to automatic
Aerobatics may be carried out on this aircraft. Due to the controls being powerful and moderately light the aerobatic qualities are good, but great care must be exercised to see that all aerobatics are carried out at sufficient height to enable the pilot to recover from a dive, spin, or stall without exerting excessive loads on the aircraft. Care should also be taken to ensure that speed is maintained during aerobatics in the looping plane.
Putting the P-40 through its paces
The aircraft tends to yaw to the right so left rudder trim is needed to maintain straight flight.
(clean, wheels up, flaps up) tail buffeted at 68kts stall and spin at 58kts
(flaps down, wheels up) tail buffet at 62 kts and stall no spin at 53 kts, recovery was automatic
(wheels down, flaps up) tail buffet at 58 kts and stall at 53 kts, recovery was difficult with opposite rudder and reduced power, aircraft fell from 14,000 to 3,580 before recovering, many spins
(wheels down, flaps down 5,000 ft AGL) tail buffet at 58kts and stall at 53 kts, one spin, easy recovery, lost 1,000 feet
12,000 feet 250 kts IAS, mixture at 35% throttle at full- very responsive loss of 120 feet
20,000 feet 250 kts IAS, mixture at 21%, full throttle- somewhat sluggish and mushy
29,000 feet 212 kts IAS, mixture at 18%, full throttle, 23 in MP, 3,000 rpms quick roll resulted in a stall and spin to 22,000 feet
29,000 feet AGL, 212 kts IAS, mixture 18%, full throttle- combat turn was somewhat sluggish and resulted in tail buffet and black-out if turning to tightly
20,000 feet AGL, 220 kts IAS, 360 degree tight turn reasonably quick no buffeting or blackout
12,000 fee AGL, 220 kts IAS, 360 degree tight combat turn, full black-out but quick recovery, tail buffeting when black-out started, let up on stick just enough to return to full recover while continuing my turn
29,000 feet-15,000 feet AGL, 200kts at start of dive, dive goes into overspeed at 368 kts IAS. According to the manual the maximum permissible is 470 mph, beyond that speed you would experience compressibility, and in this aircraft you will receive your overspeed warning followed by a break-up. At 470 mph IAS your true airspeed is 658 mph. At this speed your controls become useless.
Flaps must never be used in an attempt to reduce diving speed
As the speed of the dive increases you will notice a tendency for the aircraft to yaw right, before it reaches a critical point you will want to add a bit of left rudder.
Before you begin your dive, you should put your prop into a course pitch, and crack your throttle only slight. Do not attempt to dive with full throttle.
Landing the P-40B Tomahawk
Begin your decent 8-10 km out at an altitude of 3000 feet AGL.
First make sure your fuel selector is set to fuselage.
Set your mixture to FULL RICH
Set your cowl flaps to ½ (lower right cockpit handle)
Turn on your carb heat (right side of panel upper)
Open your canopy
Lower your landing gear(Lower it at speeds under 175 MPH)
At 140MPH add 10 flaps and hold the nose of the aircraft up until a speed of 120 Mph is reached (Do not lower your flaps at speeds of over 140MPH IAS). Be prepared to compensate for the extreme nose drop once flaps are applied.
Maintain 95 to 100 MPH as your landing will be engine assisted, not a glide
Center up on the runway, better to come in a little high so as to give you a good view of the runway centerline.
Lower your speed accordingly and flare using your engine, let the aircraft land on the main wheels and fall back to the tail wheel, with pratice you can grease a three point landing pretty easily, just make sure you don’t hit tail wheel first!
Raise your flaps and open your cowl flaps full
Turn carb heat off
That’s it. You have just taken your first flight in this legendary aircraft.
NOTES ON THE ALLISON V-1710-C15 ENGINE
(Using 100 Octane Fuel)
LIMITED OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
Maximum r.p.m. 3000
at S.L. 41.0 in.Hg.
above 2600 ft. 38.9 in.Hg.
Maximum r.p.m. 2600
Maximum boost 35.0 in.Hg.
* Note: - For take-off and climbs of short duration (not exceeding 5 min.) from sea level, the throttle should be adjusted to give 41 in.Hg. and left in this position until the boost falls to 38.9 in.Hg. This boost should then be maintained by adjustment of the throttle. For climbs of longer duration the boost should be adjusted to 35 in.Hg.
Maximum cruising r.p.m and boost 2600 35 in.Hg.
Maximum level r.p.m. and boost 3000 38.9 in.Hg.
Maximum dive r.p.m. and boost 3120 38.9 in.Hg.
Oil Pressure Normal 60-65 lb./sq.in Minimum 50 lb./sq.in
Oil inlet temperatures Minimum for take-off 40°C Normal 70-80°C Maximum 85°C
Coolant temperature Maximum 125°C Minimum for take-off or flight 85°C
FUEL CAPACITY AND CONSUMPTIONS
Note the following:
Fuel capacity (in Imperial gallons) Main tank 50 gallons [62.5 gal U.S] Fuselage tank 47 gallons [58.75 U.S.]
Reserve tank 33 gallons [41.25 U.S.]
Total 130 gallons [162.5 U.S.]
Fuel consumptions (in Imperial gallons per hour)
Approximate consumptions at 12,000 feet are as follows:
at 2600 r.p.m. and 35 in.Hg. boost 84 [105 U.S.]
at 2600 r.p.m. and 35 in.Hg. boost 84 [105 U.S.]
at 2280 r.p.m. and 29.2 in.Hg. boost 52 [65 U.S.]
at 2280 r.p.m. and 27.9 in.Hg. boost 50 [62.5 U.S.]
at 2190 r.p.m. and 25.2 in.Hg. boost 42 [52.5 U.S.]
Note: It is possible to improve on the last cruising consumption by weakening the mixture
WINGS OF POWER CERTIFIED
WINGS OF POWER CERTIFIED
Unsurpassed attention to detail
Can be flown “by the book”
Gorgeously constructed aircraft, inside and out, down to the last rivet
Fully clickable cockpits with authentic working gauges
latest technology helps to create the most authentic,
fluid flying qualities, including complex spins and stalls
NEW 3D Lighting System built in
Finest engine sound recordings available
Realistic startup procedures
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Wings of POWER II: “P40”
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