“We’ve tried over the years to find a way to get Shockwave quality to all flight simmers, especially those on a budget.  We thought about making “gold, silver, bronze, professional grade, etc.” lines, but we just did not want the Wings of POWER brand to be associated with anything less than the best we can deliver.  This new line called “Solo” allows a Wings of POWER quality aircraft to be purchased for under $20.”

Scott Gentile

Shockwave Productions Inc.

 

P51D “Mustang”

{High resolution Wings of POWER II aircraft)

 

 

 

 

Nothing else sounds, functions, or looks like a

Wings of POWER aircraft

 

At the bottom of the page,

 

 

Virtual Cockpit:

 

 

SCREENSHOTS

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Virtual Cockpit

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External Model

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History

The Wings of Power P-51D Mustang, like all Wings of Power aircraft, was created with a process called "Absolute Realism".  The flight model was very carefully researched.  We interviewed many pilots who flew the P-51D, two of them double aces.  We took our own orientation flights in existing P-51D aircraft to get a true feel for how these marvelous aircraft sound and fly in real life.  And we used the actual pilot's training manual and technical orders to ensure our procedures and performance matched the real thing as closely as possible.  This release, with our "World War II Fighters" package, represents the latest in "Absolute Realism" and incorporates advances in the flight modeling.  Subtle changes in stability will be noticed as compared to our original P-51D Mustang.  We have also introduced a new aspect of realism by incorporating the airspeed indicator error factor into the pilot's airspeed indicator.  By consulting the chart below, you can find the actual calibrated airspeed as compared to the speed shown on the pilot's airspeed indicator.  This is yet another aspect of "Absolute Realism".

To get the most realistic experience possible from Wings of Power aircraft, we recommend you purchase a copy of the actual Pilot Training Manual, which is available either on a CD-ROM or as a printed copy at many sites on the web.  Then, use the procedures in the manual to fly your Wings of Power aircraft.  Most of the procedures below are taken verbatim from the P-51 Pilot Training Manual, so having the complete manual will add the ultimate level of realism to your Wings of Power experience.

The following abbreviated procedures were condensed from the P-51D Pilot Training Manual.  It's worth noting that the manual begins with a cautionary tale, several pages long, comparing the P-51D to a wild stallion.  It was -- and is -- that kind of airplane.  Throughout the manual, the prospective pilot is warned repeatedly about the high-performance nature of the Mustang, and its propensity to turn on the unwary.  It also, however, strongly emphasizes the fact that the P-51D is a superb aircraft in the right hands, asserting that it was the finest aircraft of its kind anywhere in the world.  That argument continues to this day, but there is little doubt that, among the piston powered aircraft of the 20th century, the North American P-51D Mustang has emerged as an icon, and is by far the most widely recognized piston fighter ever produced.

General Information

Weights and Loading

The Wings of Power P-51D Long Range flight model is set up with a high level of realism, which extends to aircraft loading and fuel supply.  In the Fuel and Payloads menu, you will see five fuel tanks and six station loads.  The first two station loads are the pilot and weight of the engine oil, which is stored in a tank mounted on the aircraft firewall.  When full, this tank weighed 94 pounds, which is reflected in the default weight of this station load.  The normal pilot weight was considered to be 200 pounds for this aircraft, also reflected in the station loading.  The remaining four station loads reflect the guns and ammunition, handled separately for each wing.  Thus, the plane can be set up for flight with the normal gun and ammo weight present in the wings, without ammo but just with the gun weight, or without guns and ammo for acrobatic trim.  The manual states that the presence of the gun and ammunition weight has a negligible effect on aircraft handling, but this weight will affect the rate of climb and fuel consumption as well as takeoff distance, albeit marginally.

Set up your Wings of Power Mustang to suit your mission and proceed to the Cockpit Check.  The default loadings for weight are normal for this aircraft, so no action needs to be taken here unless you plan a special mission.

Airspeed Indicator Correction

There is an error between the indicated airspeed shown on the pilot's airspeed indicator and the actual, calibrated airspeed.  Use the following table to obtain calibrated airspeed.  The upper row shows the gage reading, and the lower row shows the actual, calibrated airspeed.  You can see this difference by holding the mouse over the gage and comparing the tooltip reading with the indicated speed on the gage.

IAS, mph

90

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

500

CAS, mph

93

105

154

203

252

302

353

404

505

Cockpit Check - Fuel Supply

The first thing you will want to consider is whether or not to fly with the aft fuselage tank filled.  When even half-full, this tank had a severely adverse affect on the aircraft's handling.  Only normal, conservative maneuvers were allowed with this tank full, as it moves the aircraft's center of gravity well aft.  Unless you are planning a long-range ferry mission, it is recommended this tank be set to empty or nearly empty.  Note: for "Auto Start", this tank must have enough fuel in it to get the plane started, as the simulator will NOT select either wing tank automatically.  To get around this, start with five gallons of fuel in the center tank if you plan on using the "Auto Start" feature to start your aircraft.

Cockpit Check - Controls

  1. Parking Brake - Set
  2. Fuel Selector - Set to fuselage tank if fuel is present; use fullest wing tank if fuselage tank is empty.
  3. Elevator Trim - Neutral if fuselage tank is full; 4 degrees tail-heavy if fuselage tank is empty
  4. Rudder Trim - 5 degrees nose-right
  5. Aileron Trim - Neutral
  6. Flaps - Up for takeoff
  7. Carburetor Air - Normal
  8. Propeller Control - FULL FORWARD
  9. Tailwheel - unlocked for taxi
  10. Flight Instruments - Checked and Set
  11. Engine Instruments - Checked
  12. Switches - Checked

Mixture Control

This flight model is equipped with an automatic mixture control, which accurately reflects the real aircraft.  No adjustment is needed.  Set to full rich at all times.  The mixture control can be used to cut off the fuel supply to the engine if desired for shutdown.

Engine Starting

The following procedure was taken directly from the P-51D manual except for those noted with an asterisk.

  1. Cockpit Check - COMPLETE
  2. Set or hold your parking brakes.
  3. Turn the battery and generator switches to ON.
  4. Put fuel selector on LEFT MAIN TANK (or FUSELAGE TANK if so equipped) and turn fuel shut-off valve ON.
  5. Put the booster pump on EMERGENCY.
  6. Turn the magneto switch on BOTH.
  7. Set mixture control to RICH.*
  8. Confirm fuel pressure is at least 10 psi.*
  9. Use the primer - three to four shots for a cold engine.
  10. Engage starter switch until the engine starts.
  11. Check engine instruments to confirm oil pressure rises to at least 50 psi within 30 seconds.
  12. Idle at 1200-1300 RPM until the oil temperature reaches 40 degrees C.
  13. Check the suction gage to see if it is working.
  14. Check all instruments for proper function.
  15. After warmup, idle at 1000 RPM or slightly less.

Pre-takeoff Check

  1. See that the trim tabs are properly set.
  2. Check the mags at 2300 RPM.  100 RPM drop maximum.
  3. Check the propeller control.
  4. Turn the booster pump to emergency
  5. Check the coolant/oil shutter position (open for takeoff).

Takeoff

This section was taken directly from the manual except for the notations in parentheses.

After you have pulled out and lined up on the runway, make sure the steerable tailwheel is locked and the stick well back.  Then advance the throttle gradually, and smoothly, up to the desired manifold pressure.  Don't hoist the tail up by pushing forward on the stick until you have sufficient airspeed to give you effective rudder control (at least 60 mph IAS).

This is important to watch in the takeoff, since the P-51, like all single-engine planes, has a tendency to turn left because of torque.  If you horse the tail off the ground too quickly with the elevators, better be ready to use the right rudder promptly.

Keep the airplane in a three-point attitude until you have plenty of airspeed.  In a normal takeoff, the rudder trim tab is sufficient to make torque almost unnoticeable.

After Takeoff

  1. Raise the landing gear.
  2. Throttle back to normal climbing power.
  3. Adjust the prop to climbing RPM.
  4. Retrim the ship as required for climbing.
  5. Turn the booster pump to the normal position.
  6. Check over all your instruments.

Landing

  1. Check tanks and select the fullest tank for landing.
  2. Put the fuel booster on normal.
  3. Check the mixture control and set to RICH.
  4. Set the prop to about 2700 RPM.
  5. Check the traffic pattern and obtain clearance to land.
  6. Slow down to a sensible speed before peeling off.
  7. Slow down to 170 mph before lowering your landing gear.  When the landing gear comes down, the airplane gets quite nose-heavy.  However, you can easily adjust the trim tabs to take care of this.  Don't forget that the gear takes 10-15 seconds to go down.
  8. The normal speed in the traffic pattern with wheels down is 150 mph IAS.
  9. Do not lower full flaps before 165 mph IAS.  Remember, it takes 15 seconds to go from the full up position to the full down position.  Allow plenty of time for this operation to make sure your flaps are down when you need them.
  10. After your flaps are down and you roll out of the turn onto the landing (approach) leg, your speed should be about 115-120 mph IAS.  Don't keep so much power on that you'll be making a power approach.  However, keep enough power on to keep your engine clean (about 20-25 inches of Hg on final at a descent rate of 500 fpm at 120 mph IAS at 9,000 lbs. aircraft wt.)
  11. Just before getting to the runway, break your glide, make a smooth roundout, and approach the runway in a 3-point attitude.
  12. Hold the plane off in the 3-point attitude just barely above the runway until you lose flying speed and the plane sets down.  The P-51 doesn't mush but stalls rather suddenly when you lose flying speed.  So have your plane close to the runway at this point.

Climb Control

A normal, brisk climb is made at 175 mph IAS with a manifold pressure of 46" and the propeller set to 2700 RPM.  A climb to 25,000 feet can be accomplished in about 15 minutes and will cover about 50 nautical miles.  Allow the climbing speed to fall off gradually above 15,000 feet until you are climbing at 165 mph IAS at 25,000 feet.  A climb to 25,000 feet will use about 21 gallons of fuel in this flight model if the mixture is set to automatic.  For maximum performance, climb at 61" and 3,000 RPM at 175 mph.  A climb to 20,000 feet at this power setting will take about 6.5 minutes and cover a little over 20 nautical miles.  You will need to adjust your mixture control for best power as you climb if your mixture control is set to manual in the realism settings.

Cruise Control Schedule

Set your Mustang up for optimum cruising, depending on your mission, using the following table, for aircraft weights of 8,000 to 9,600 lbs.  These two settings are just two possible examples taken from the manual.  Your WoP P-51D precisely matches the fuel economy and range of the real aircraft per the manual, and you can use the manual to set up a variety of cruise settings.  Use the "Range" information below, in miles per gallon, to calculate your range based on the amount of fuel you have on board.  All figures are for the mixture control set to automatic.  You will need to adjust your mixture control for best power to duplicate these figures if your mixture control is set to manual in the realism settings.

Altitude

Pilot's
IAS

Manifold
Pressure

RPM

TAS MPH

GPH

Specific
Range

10,000

226

31

1600

260

45

5.8 mpg

20,000

235

35

2100

316

56

5.6 mpg

Engine Limitations and Characteristics

The Packard Merlin V-1650-7 used in this P-51D was a potent engine and a good performer at high altitudes.  The two-stage supercharger did a good job of maintaining power up to moderately high altitudes and its operation was normally automatic.  The maximum allowable manifold pressure for this aircraft is 67", which is considered "War Emergency Power" or "Combat Power".  This setting was to be used for only five minutes at a time.  The normal maximum power for takeoff is 61" at 3000 RPM.  There is no War Emergency Power switch on this aircraft.  Just use the throttle to set the appropriate manifold pressure.

ENGINE POWER CHART

TAKEOFF
MAXIMUM

TAKEOFF
NORMAL

WAR
EMERGENCY

MILITARY
POWER

MAXIMUM
CONTINUOUS

MAXIMUM
CRUISE

NORMAL
CRUISE

MP

61"

45"

67"

61"

46"

36"

30"

RPM

3000

3000

3000

3000

2700

2400

2250

Flight Characteristics

From the P-51 Manual:

"The P-51 is one of the sweetest-flying fighter planes ever built.  It is very light on all controls and stable at all normal loadings.  Although light on the controls, it is not so sensitive that you would call it jerky.  Light, steady pressures are all you need to execute any routine maneuver.  At various speeds in level flight or in climbing or diving, the control pressures you have to hold are slight and can be taken care of by slight adjustments on the trim tabs.  However, the trim tab controls are sensitive; use them carefully.

CAUTION - In designing the later models of the P-51 and adding new equipment such as radio units and an additional gas tank, the center of gravity of the airplane has been moved back.  The effect is that the forces necessary to move the stick have been lightened.  Instead of a force of 6 lbs per G of acceleration, you exert a force of only about 1.5 lbs. to move the stick.  As a result, you have considerable leverage on the stick -- you can easily put greater stresses on the airplane than it is designed to withstand.  So be careful in sharp pullouts and in steep turns."

Stalls

A stall in the P-51 is comparatively mild.  The airplane does not whip at the stall, but rolls rather slowly and has very little tendency to drop into a spin.  You get ample warning of any type of stall.  In a straight power-off stall you feel a slight elevator buffet about 3 to 4 mph above the stall.  In a high-speed stall you feel a sharp buffeting at the elevators and at the root of one wing.  Recovery from any stall is entirely normal.  Apply opposite rudder to pick up the dropping wing and release the back pressure on the stick.

Spins

Never spin the aircraft intentionally even with power off unless you have sufficient altitude to get out of the spin above 10,000 feet.  Never spin the airplane intentionally with the power on under any conditions.  Like all fighter planes the P-51 loses altitude terrifically fast in this maneuver and has a tendency not only to tighten up but to go flat when you use power.  Recovery is made by applying rudder against the spin and returning the stick to neutral.  In this situation you may lose as much as 9,000 feet of altitude.

Compressibility and Dive Recovery

The Mustang is a very slick aircraft and gains speed quickly in a dive.  It can be controlled without any problem to about 75% of the speed of sound (0.75 Mach).  If this speed is exceeded, the phenomenon of compressibility may cause you to lose control authority.  The elevators will either stop responding or they will reverse.  The P-51D manual states:  "All you can do (once you get into compressibility) is ride it through until you decelerate enough and lose altitude to the point where your speed is below the red line speed as given in the table. This usually means an uncontrolled dive of between 8,000 and 12,000 feet, depending on circumstances.  Only after you have lost enough speed and altitude, do you come out of compressibility and regain control of your airplane...at that point you can begin to come out of your dive.  Note that last sentence carefully. You can begin to come out of your dive -- that's after losing 8-12,000 feet. If at that point you have sufficient altitude for a controlled dive recovery, you will be okay. If not,...?"

The WWII Fighters P-51D accurately recreates both compressibility effects in the range of 0.76-0.80 Mach as well as loss of control authority due to high indicated airspeeds at low altitude (dynamic pressure effects).  The redline airspeed in mph is as follows:

40,000 feet = 270 mph IAS (485)
35,000 feet = 305 mph IAS (520)
30,000 feet = 340 mph IAS (545)
25,000 feet = 385 mph IAS (575)
20,000 feet = 420 mph IAS (590)
15,000 feet = 465 mph IAS (605)
10,000 feet = 505 mph IAS (605)

These are the speeds at which the Mach number will exceed 0.75 Mach, and you can see that these speeds vary with altitude.  The plane will handle fine up until 0.75 Mach.  Beyond this speed you will notice the elevator authority will decrease and ultimately reverse at about 0.8 Mach.  The overspeed warning will come on at 0.75 Mach to warn of this condition.  If the redline is exceeded, immediately cut the power, keep the stick neutral, and use elevator trim to raise the nose.  If prompt action is not taken, the plane will go into an unrecoverable dive.

At lower altitudes, exceeding the red line of 505 mph IAS (below 10,000 feet) will not result in problems until reaching an indicated speed of over 570 mph.  At that time the control authority will begin to diminish to the point where it may become impossible to recover.  The trim authority is also reduced under these conditions so trim cannot be used to recover.  If you get into an uncontrollable dive below 10,000 feet, the only solution is to bail out.

Permissible Acrobatics

All acrobatics are permissible, with the exception of snap rolls and power-on spins.

 

 

 

 

WINGS OF POWER CERTIFIED

WINGS OF POWER CERTIFIED

“Absolute Realism”

 

 

ü       Unsurpassed attention to detail

 

ü       Can be flown “by the book”

 

ü       Gorgeously constructed aircraft, inside and out, down to the last rivet

 

ü       Fully clickable cockpits with authentic working gauges

 

ü       The latest wind-tunnel technology helps to create the most authentic,
fluid flying qualities, including complex spins and stalls

 

ü      Enhanced visual effects and lighting

________________________________

 

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Wings of POWER II:  P51D “Mustang,”

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

  

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